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Rhetorical Situation Analysis (+ Examples)

Rhetorical Situation Analysis
A rhetorical situation is a concept in rhetoric, which is the art and study of persuasive communication. It refers to the circumstances or context in which communication takes place and how those circumstances influence the way a message is constructed and received.

Key Elements

Rhetorical situations typically involve the following key elements:

  1. Exigence: This is the issue or problem that prompts the need for communication. It’s the reason why someone is communicating in the first place. Exigence often arises from a specific situation or problem that requires a response.
  2. Audience: The audience refers to the people who will receive and interpret the message. The characteristics and expectations of the audience play a crucial role in shaping how a message is crafted. Effective communication takes into account the needs, values, beliefs, and attitudes of the intended audience.
  3. Purpose: The purpose of communication can vary widely. It might be to inform, persuade, entertain, motivate, or provoke. The purpose helps determine the tone, style, and content of the message.
  4. Context: Context includes the broader social, cultural, and historical factors that influence the communication. It encompasses the time, place, cultural norms, and any other factors that may impact how the message is understood.
  5. Constraints: Constraints refer to the limitations or boundaries that affect the communication process. These constraints can be external (such as time, space, or resources) or internal (such as the writer’s or speaker’s own abilities and knowledge).

Understanding and analyzing the rhetorical situation is crucial for effective communication. It helps communicators tailor their message to their audience and purpose, choose appropriate rhetorical strategies, and address exigencies effectively. By considering these elements, communicators can increase the chances of their message being persuasive and impactful.

Lloyd Bitzer “The Rhetorical Situation” Definition

Lloyd Bitzer, a prominent rhetorical theorist, defined the rhetorical situation in his influential essay titled “The Rhetorical Situation,” published in 1968. Bitzer’s definition focuses on the dynamic and contextual nature of rhetoric. According to Bitzer, a rhetorical situation consists of three key elements:

  1. Exigence: Exigence is the central concept in Bitzer’s definition of the rhetorical situation. It refers to an imperfection or problem that calls for a rhetorical response. Exigence is the reason why communication is necessary, and it often arises in response to a specific set of circumstances or events.
  2. Audience: The audience consists of the individuals or group of people who are capable of being influenced or changed by the rhetoric. In a rhetorical situation, the audience is not only the people who hear or read the message but also those who have the power to make decisions or take action in response to the exigence.
  3. Constraints: Constraints are the external and internal factors that limit or shape the rhetorical response. External constraints can include time, available resources, and legal or ethical considerations. Internal constraints are the abilities, knowledge, and beliefs of the rhetor (the person delivering the message).

In summary, Bitzer emphasizes that a rhetorical situation is a dynamic and ever-changing phenomenon. It arises when there is a need for persuasive communication to address a specific problem or exigence. The rhetoric used in response to the situation is shaped by the constraints and the audience’s characteristics and expectations. Bitzer’s concept of the rhetorical situation highlights the idea that effective communication is not solely a product of the communicator’s skill but also depends on the context and the pressing need for communication to occur.

How to Write a Rhetorical Situation Analysis

Writing a rhetorical situation analysis involves critically examining a piece of communication to understand how it addresses the key elements of a rhetorical situation: exigence, audience, and constraints. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to write a rhetorical situation analysis:

  1. Choose a Text: Select a text or communication piece to analyze. This could be a speech, essay, advertisement, political campaign, article, or any form of communication that you find interesting and persuasive.
  2. Understand the Context: Before diving into the analysis, gather background information about the context in which the text was produced. This includes the time, place, historical events, and any relevant cultural or social factors that may have influenced the communication.
  3. Identify the Exigence: Determine the central problem or issue (exigence) that the text addresses. What is the communication trying to resolve, respond to, or persuade the audience about? This often involves identifying the problem or need that led to the creation of the text.
  4. Analyze the Audience: Consider who the intended audience is for the communication. What are their characteristics, beliefs, values, and expectations? How does the text appeal to or engage with this audience? Analyze how the communicator tailors the message to the audience’s needs and concerns.
  5. Examine Purpose and Rhetorical Strategies: Explore the purpose of the communication. Is it meant to inform, persuade, entertain, motivate, or provoke? Analyze the rhetorical strategies employed in the text, including the use of persuasive appeals (ethos, pathos, logos), rhetorical devices (metaphor, simile, irony), tone, style, and language choices. Discuss how these strategies align with the intended purpose.
  6. Consider Constraints: Discuss the constraints that may have influenced the communication. These can be external constraints like time, resources, and legal or ethical considerations, as well as internal constraints like the communicator’s expertise and biases.
  7. Assess Effectiveness: Critically evaluate how effectively the text addresses the exigence, engages the audience, and achieves its intended purpose. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the rhetorical strategies employed and their impact on the overall persuasive effect of the communication.
  8. Provide Evidence: Support your analysis with specific examples from the text. Quote relevant passages, cite statistics, and reference specific rhetorical devices to illustrate your points.
  9. Organize Your Analysis: Structure your analysis in a clear and organized manner. You can use a standard essay format with an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion. Each paragraph should focus on a different aspect of the rhetorical situation.
  10. Conclude and Summarize: In your conclusion, summarize your key findings and insights. Reflect on the overall effectiveness of the communication in addressing the exigence and persuading the audience.
  11. Proofread and Edit: Carefully proofread your analysis for grammar, punctuation, and clarity. Ensure that your analysis is well-written and free from errors.
  12. Cite Sources: If you use external sources or references in your analysis, make sure to properly cite them using a citation style such as APA, MLA, or Chicago.

Writing a rhetorical situation analysis involves a thorough examination of the text in its context, and it requires critical thinking and attention to detail. By following these steps, you can create a well-structured and insightful analysis of a communication piece



Certainly, here are five examples of rhetorical situation analyses for various famous speeches:

  1. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” Speech:
    • Exigence: The Civil Rights Movement and ongoing racial inequality in the United States.
    • Audience: A diverse crowd of civil rights activists gathered at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington.
    • Purpose: To advocate for racial equality and justice, inspire hope, and call for an end to racial discrimination.
    • Context: Delivered in 1963, during a period of significant civil rights activism and societal change.
    • Constraints: The need to maintain a nonviolent approach and adhere to the principles of justice and equality.
  2. John F. Kennedy’s Inaugural Address:
    • Exigence: The challenges and uncertainties of the Cold War era.
    • Audience: The American people and the global community.
    • Purpose: To inspire unity, optimism, and global cooperation during a tense period of the Cold War.
    • Context: Delivered in 1961, at the height of Cold War tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union.
    • Constraints: The need to strike a balance between national pride and global diplomacy.
  3. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address:
    • Exigence: The devastating loss of life during the American Civil War and the need to honor the fallen.
    • Audience: Attendees at the dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery.
    • Purpose: To reaffirm the principles of liberty and equality and to remind the nation of its dedication to these ideals.
    • Context: Delivered in 1863, during the Civil War, when the nation was deeply divided.
    • Constraints: The brevity of the speech and the need to provide comfort and inspiration.
  4. Susan B. Anthony’s “On Women’s Right to Vote” Speech:
    • Exigence: The lack of women’s suffrage and unequal treatment of women in the United States.
    • Audience: A gathering of suffragists and advocates for women’s rights.
    • Purpose: To argue for women’s right to vote and equality under the law.
    • Context: Delivered in the late 19th century, during a period of activism for women’s suffrage.
    • Constraints: The need to counter prevailing social norms and prejudice against women’s involvement in politics.
  5. Winston Churchill’s “We Shall Fight on the Beaches” Speech:
    • Exigence: The dire circumstances facing the United Kingdom during World War II, particularly the threat of invasion by Nazi Germany.
    • Audience: The British Parliament and the British people.
    • Purpose: To rally the nation’s resolve, inspire courage, and convey determination to resist the Nazi threat.
    • Context: Delivered in 1940, at a time when Britain stood alone against Nazi aggression.
    • Constraints: The need to maintain national morale and demonstrate strong leadership.

These examples illustrate how the five elements of the rhetorical situation (exigence, audience, purpose, context, and constraints) play a pivotal role in shaping the content and impact of famous speeches.


Here are five examples of rhetorical situation analyses for various famous letters:

  1. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”:
    • Exigence: The need to respond to fellow clergymen who criticized King’s civil rights activism as untimely and provocative.
    • Audience: Fellow clergymen, the broader civil rights movement, and the American public.
    • Purpose: To defend nonviolent civil disobedience as a means to address racial injustice and advocate for immediate action against segregation.
    • Context: Written in 1963 during the height of the civil rights movement.
    • Constraints: The need to address criticism from within the religious community while maintaining the principles of justice and equality.
  2. Abigail Adams’ Letter to John Adams (1776):
    • Exigence: The desire to influence the drafting of the Declaration of Independence and protect women’s rights.
    • Audience: Abigail’s husband John Adams, who was involved in the drafting of the Declaration and shaping the nation’s future.
    • Purpose: To advocate for women’s rights and remind her husband to “remember the ladies” when establishing the nation’s laws.
    • Context: Written during the American Revolution, a period of political change and upheaval.
    • Constraints: The need to assert her views on women’s rights while respecting societal norms of the time.
  3. Vincent van Gogh’s Letters to Theo van Gogh:
    • Exigence: The need to maintain a close relationship with his brother, Theo, and communicate his thoughts, struggles, and artistic ideas.
    • Audience: Vincent’s brother Theo, who was his closest confidant and supporter.
    • Purpose: To share personal experiences, artistic insights, and financial concerns.
    • Context: Written over several years during Vincent’s artistic career and struggles with mental health.
    • Constraints: The need to express himself honestly and seek support from Theo, who also provided financial assistance.
  4. Thomas Jefferson’s Letter to the Danbury Baptists:
    • Exigence: The need to address concerns from the Danbury Baptists regarding religious freedom.
    • Audience: The Danbury Baptist Association.
    • Purpose: To reassure the Danbury Baptists and emphasize the importance of the separation of church and state in the United States.
    • Context: Written in 1802 during Jefferson’s presidency to clarify the government’s stance on religious liberty.
    • Constraints: The need to address religious concerns while upholding the principles of the First Amendment.
  5. Anne Frank’s Diary Entries:
    • Exigence: The need to document her experiences and thoughts while hiding from the Nazis during World War II.
    • Audience: Herself, as well as a potential future readership.
    • Purpose: To provide a firsthand account of the Holocaust, express her hopes and fears, and maintain a sense of normalcy during a turbulent time.
    • Context: Written between 1942 and 1944 in hiding in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    • Constraints: The need to maintain secrecy, cope with confinement, and find solace through writing.

These examples showcase how the five elements of the rhetorical situation (exigence, audience, purpose, context, and constraints) are integral to understanding the purpose and impact of famous letters throughout history.


Here are five examples of rhetorical situation analysis for various popular novels:

  1. “To Kill a Mockingbird” by Harper Lee:
    • Exigence: The pervasive racial prejudice and injustice in the American South during the 1930s.
    • Audience: Readers, especially those interested in issues of racial equality and social justice.
    • Purpose: To expose the injustices of the legal system and societal racism and to call for empathy and understanding.
    • Context: Published in 1960 during the Civil Rights Movement.
    • Constraints: The need to address sensitive racial issues while crafting a compelling narrative.
  2. “1984” by George Orwell:
    • Exigence: Concerns about totalitarianism, censorship, and surveillance in a dystopian future.
    • Audience: A global readership interested in themes of political control and freedom.
    • Purpose: To warn against the dangers of authoritarianism and the erosion of individual liberties.
    • Context: Published in 1949 in the aftermath of World War II and amid growing concerns about totalitarian regimes.
    • Constraints: The need to create a powerful cautionary tale that resonates with readers.
  3. “The Great Gatsby” by F. Scott Fitzgerald:
    • Exigence: The excesses and moral decay of the Jazz Age in the 1920s.
    • Audience: Readers curious about the American Dream, wealth, and societal values.
    • Purpose: To critique the shallow materialism and moral emptiness of the era and explore themes of love and aspiration.
    • Context: Published in 1925 during the Roaring Twenties.
    • Constraints: The need to craft a narrative that captures the essence of the era’s excesses and disillusionment.
  4. “The Catcher in the Rye” by J.D. Salinger:
    • Exigence: The sense of alienation and disillusionment among young people in post-World War II America.
    • Audience: Teenagers and young adults seeking to understand their own feelings of isolation and rebellion.
    • Purpose: To convey the inner thoughts and struggles of a teenage protagonist and critique societal hypocrisy.
    • Context: Published in 1951, a time of social change and youth rebellion.
    • Constraints: The need to create a relatable and authentic teenage voice.
  5. “Brave New World” by Aldous Huxley:
    • Exigence: Concerns about the impact of technology, consumerism, and conformity on society’s future.
    • Audience: Readers interested in science fiction, dystopian literature, and the consequences of a highly controlled society.
    • Purpose: To explore the consequences of a world driven by pleasure and consumption, and to caution against the loss of individuality.
    • Context: Published in 1932 during a period of rapid technological advancement.
    • Constraints: The need to craft a thought-provoking and cautionary narrative about the dehumanizing effects of a highly regulated society.

These examples illustrate how the rhetorical situation, including the exigence, audience, purpose, context, and constraints, plays a significant role in shaping the themes and impact of popular novels.

Short Stories & Essays

Here are six examples of rhetorical situation analysis for various popular short stories and essays:

  1. “The Tell-Tale Heart” by Edgar Allan Poe (Short Story):
    • Exigence: The narrator’s obsession with the old man’s eye and his compulsion to prove his sanity.
    • Audience: Readers of Gothic fiction interested in psychological horror and suspense.
    • Purpose: To create an eerie atmosphere, evoke fear, and explore the narrator’s descent into madness.
    • Context: Published in 1843 during the Romantic era and Poe’s exploration of dark psychological themes.
    • Constraints: The need to sustain tension and suspense while maintaining a first-person narrative.
  2. “Self-Reliance” by Ralph Waldo Emerson (Essay):
    • Exigence: The desire to encourage individualism and self-reliance in a rapidly changing society.
    • Audience: Readers interested in transcendentalism and the idea of nonconformity.
    • Purpose: To advocate for self-reliance, intuition, and the rejection of societal conformity.
    • Context: Published in 1841 during the transcendentalist movement in the United States.
    • Constraints: The need to inspire readers to embrace self-reliance and challenge societal norms.
  3. “The Lottery” by Shirley Jackson (Short Story):
    • Exigence: The annual tradition of a small-town lottery with a gruesome outcome.
    • Audience: Readers of fiction interested in exploring the darker aspects of human nature.
    • Purpose: To shock and provoke thought about the dangers of blindly following tradition.
    • Context: Published in 1948 during a period of social conformity and McCarthyism in the United States.
    • Constraints: The need to build suspense and maintain the story’s shocking twist.
  4. “A Modest Proposal” by Jonathan Swift (Essay):
    • Exigence: The dire poverty and overpopulation in Ireland during the 18th century.
    • Audience: A British audience and policymakers who were indifferent to the suffering of the Irish.
    • Purpose: To satirically propose a solution to the Irish economic crisis by suggesting that the poor should sell their children as food.
    • Context: Published in 1729 during a period of British colonialism in Ireland.
    • Constraints: The need to use satire and irony to draw attention to the Irish plight and critique British policies.
  5. “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman (Short Story):
    • Exigence: The narrator’s confinement to a room and her subsequent descent into madness.
    • Audience: Readers interested in feminist literature and the challenges women faced in the 19th century.
    • Purpose: To shed light on the oppressive nature of the “rest cure” and challenge societal expectations of women.
    • Context: Published in 1892 during a period of limited rights and opportunities for women.
    • Constraints: The need to depict the protagonist’s mental deterioration while addressing issues of gender and mental health.
  6. “Civil Disobedience” by Henry David Thoreau (Essay):
    • Exigence: Thoreau’s protest against government policies, including slavery and the Mexican-American War.
    • Audience: Readers interested in the transcendentalist philosophy and the idea of nonviolent resistance.
    • Purpose: To advocate for civil disobedience as a means to resist unjust laws and government actions.
    • Context: Published in 1849 during a period of social and political unrest in the United States.
    • Constraints: The need to articulate a philosophy of civil disobedience and encourage individual resistance to unjust authority.

These examples demonstrate how the rhetorical situation, encompassing the exigence, audience, purpose, context, and constraints, shapes the themes and impact of popular short stories and essays.


Here are five examples of rhetorical situation analysis for various popular plays:

  1. “Romeo and Juliet” by William Shakespeare:
    • Exigence: The long-standing feud between the Montagues and Capulets in Verona.
    • Audience: Theatergoers interested in tragedy, romance, and the complexities of love and family loyalty.
    • Purpose: To explore the power of love and the tragic consequences of hatred and feuding.
    • Context: Written in the early 1590s during the Elizabethan era.
    • Constraints: The need to create compelling characters and dialogues while adhering to the conventions of Elizabethan drama.
  2. “Death of a Salesman” by Arthur Miller:
    • Exigence: The disillusionment and despair faced by the American working class in the mid-20th century.
    • Audience: Theater audiences and readers interested in exploring the American Dream and its failures.
    • Purpose: To critique the relentless pursuit of success and the impact on individuals and families.
    • Context: Premiered in 1949 in the post-World War II era.
    • Constraints: The need to depict the emotional turmoil of the protagonist, Willy Loman, while addressing broader societal issues.
  3. “Hamlet” by William Shakespeare:
    • Exigence: The murder of King Hamlet and the subsequent political intrigue in Denmark.
    • Audience: Theatergoers interested in tragedy, psychological drama, and political machinations.
    • Purpose: To delve into themes of revenge, madness, and the consequences of inaction.
    • Context: Written in the early 1600s during the Jacobean era.
    • Constraints: The need to portray Hamlet’s complex character and navigate the political dynamics of the Danish court.
  4. “A Raisin in the Sun” by Lorraine Hansberry:
    • Exigence: The African American experience in 1950s America, particularly issues of racism and economic opportunity.
    • Audience: Theater audiences and readers interested in civil rights and social justice.
    • Purpose: To depict the struggles and aspirations of an African American family in pursuit of a better life.
    • Context: Premiered in 1959 during the Civil Rights Movement.
    • Constraints: The need to address racial tensions and economic disparities while crafting relatable characters.
  5. “The Importance of Being Earnest” by Oscar Wilde:
    • Exigence: The conventions of Victorian society and the superficiality of manners and appearances.
    • Audience: Theatergoers interested in social satire, humor, and the critique of societal norms.
    • Purpose: To lampoon the absurdities of the upper class and emphasize the importance of sincerity and earnestness.
    • Context: Premiered in 1895 during the late Victorian era.
    • Constraints: The need to employ wit, wordplay, and comedic situations to convey Wilde’s satirical message.

These examples showcase how the rhetorical situation, including the exigence, audience, purpose, context, and constraints, influences the themes, characters, and impact of popular plays in the world of theater and literature.


Here are five examples of rhetorical situation analysis for various popular films:

  1. “The Shawshank Redemption” (1994):
    • Exigence: The injustices and harsh realities of the prison system.
    • Audience: Film enthusiasts and viewers interested in themes of redemption and resilience.
    • Purpose: To tell a compelling story of hope and transformation in the face of adversity.
    • Context: Released in 1994, a period of social awareness and discussions about prison reform.
    • Constraints: The need to engage viewers emotionally while exploring the complexities of friendship and personal growth within a prison setting.
  2. “Schindler’s List” (1993):
    • Exigence: The Holocaust and the need to remember and understand the horrors of genocide.
    • Audience: Filmgoers interested in historical drama and the exploration of human suffering and heroism.
    • Purpose: To provide a harrowing account of the Holocaust and pay tribute to Oskar Schindler’s efforts to save lives.
    • Context: Released in 1993, amid a growing recognition of the importance of Holocaust education and remembrance.
    • Constraints: The need to depict the historical events with sensitivity and historical accuracy.
  3. “The Social Network” (2010):
    • Exigence: The rise of social media and the controversies surrounding its creation.
    • Audience: Moviegoers intrigued by the story of Facebook’s inception and the world of technology and entrepreneurship.
    • Purpose: To explore the complex relationships, ambition, and ethical dilemmas behind the creation of Facebook.
    • Context: Released in 2010, during a period of growing interest in social media and its impact on society.
    • Constraints: The need to craft a compelling narrative while addressing issues of intellectual property and interpersonal conflicts.
  4. “Get Out” (2017):
    • Exigence: Contemporary racial tensions and the persistence of racism in American society.
    • Audience: Film enthusiasts interested in horror, satire, and social commentary.
    • Purpose: To use horror and satire to comment on race relations and expose the insidious nature of racism.
    • Context: Released in 2017, amidst heightened discussions about race and identity in the United States.
    • Constraints: The need to balance horror elements with thought-provoking social commentary.
  5. “Black Panther” (2018):
    • Exigence: The lack of representation and diversity in mainstream superhero films.
    • Audience: Moviegoers interested in superhero movies, African culture, and issues of identity and representation.
    • Purpose: To celebrate African culture and explore themes of identity, responsibility, and the African diaspora.
    • Context: Released in 2018, during a period of increased demand for diversity and representation in film.
    • Constraints: The need to create a visually stunning and culturally resonant superhero film while addressing social and cultural issues.

These examples demonstrate how the rhetorical situation, including the exigence, audience, purpose, context, and constraints, influences the themes, storytelling, and impact of popular films in the world of cinema.


Certainly, here are five examples of rhetorical situation analysis for various popular advertisements:

  1. Apple’s “1984” Super Bowl Commercial:
    • Exigence: The need to introduce the Macintosh computer as a revolutionary product in a crowded market.
    • Audience: Super Bowl viewers and potential computer buyers.
    • Purpose: To create buzz and anticipation for the Macintosh by presenting it as a symbol of freedom and individuality in contrast to Orwellian conformity.
    • Context: Aired during the 1984 Super Bowl, during a time of technological innovation.
    • Constraints: The need to convey a powerful message in a short amount of time and make a lasting impression.
  2. Nike’s “Just Do It” Campaign:
    • Exigence: The need to rebrand and rejuvenate the Nike brand in the 1980s.
    • Audience: Athletes and individuals interested in sports and fitness.
    • Purpose: To inspire and motivate people to take action, pursue their goals, and associate Nike with determination and success.
    • Context: Launched in the late 1980s, during a period of fitness and self-improvement trends.
    • Constraints: The need to create a memorable slogan and engage with a diverse audience of athletes.
  3. Dove’s “Real Beauty” Campaign:
    • Exigence: The desire to challenge unrealistic beauty standards and promote self-acceptance.
    • Audience: People, especially women, who are affected by societal beauty norms and body image issues.
    • Purpose: To redefine beauty and encourage self-confidence by showcasing diverse and unretouched images of women.
    • Context: Launched in the early 2000s, during a growing awareness of body image and self-esteem issues.
    • Constraints: The need to counteract traditional beauty advertising and create a positive and empowering message.
  4. Coca-Cola’s “Share a Coke” Campaign:
    • Exigence: The need to boost Coca-Cola’s brand engagement and connect with consumers on a personal level.
    • Audience: Consumers of all ages and backgrounds.
    • Purpose: To foster a sense of personalization and connection by featuring individual names on Coca-Cola bottles and cans.
    • Context: Launched in the 2010s as part of a broader trend in personalization and social media sharing.
    • Constraints: The need to print a vast array of names on product labels and create a sense of personal connection.
  5. Old Spice’s “The Man Your Man Could Smell Like” Campaign:
    • Exigence: The desire to reinvent the Old Spice brand and appeal to a younger demographic.
    • Audience: Both men and women, with a focus on younger consumers.
    • Purpose: To use humor and hyperbole to position Old Spice as a modern and humorous brand for men.
    • Context: Launched in the 2010s during a time of changing gender roles and advertising trends.
    • Constraints: The need to create memorable, humorous ads that resonate with a broad audience.

These examples demonstrate how the rhetorical situation, including the exigence, audience, purpose, context, and constraints, influences the messaging and impact of popular advertisements in the world of marketing and advertising.

Ted Talks & YouTube Videos

Here are five examples of rhetorical situation analysis for various popular TED Talks and YouTube videos:

  1. Simon Sinek’s TED Talk: “Start with Why”:
    • Exigence: The need to inspire individuals and organizations to rethink their approach to leadership and communication.
    • Audience: TED Talk viewers and people interested in leadership and personal development.
    • Purpose: To encourage people to focus on the “why” behind their actions and decisions rather than just the “what” or “how.”
    • Context: Delivered in 2009, during a period of growing interest in leadership and organizational culture.
    • Constraints: The need to convey a clear and compelling message about the importance of purpose-driven leadership.
  2. BrenĂ© Brown’s TED Talk: “The Power of Vulnerability”:
    • Exigence: The need to address issues of shame, vulnerability, and human connection in a society where vulnerability is often seen as weakness.
    • Audience: TED Talk viewers and those interested in psychology, self-improvement, and personal growth.
    • Purpose: To promote the idea that vulnerability is essential for meaningful connections and personal growth.
    • Context: Delivered in 2010, during a time when discussions about vulnerability and authenticity were gaining traction.
    • Constraints: The need to share personal anecdotes and research findings to illustrate the power of vulnerability.
  3. Casey Neistat’s YouTube Video: “Do What You Can’t”:
    • Exigence: The desire to motivate and inspire creative individuals to pursue their passions and overcome obstacles.
    • Audience: YouTube viewers, particularly those interested in filmmaking and creative endeavors.
    • Purpose: To challenge the notion of “can’t” and encourage people to embrace a mindset of possibility and resilience.
    • Context: Uploaded in 2017, during a time when YouTube creators were gaining prominence and inspiring others.
    • Constraints: The need to use Casey Neistat’s personal story and creative filmmaking to deliver an impactful message.
  4. Vsauce’s YouTube Video: “The Science of Awkwardness”:
    • Exigence: The need to explore the concept of awkwardness and provide a scientific perspective on social interactions.
    • Audience: YouTube viewers interested in science, psychology, and human behavior.
    • Purpose: To educate and entertain by explaining the science behind awkward moments and offering insights into social dynamics.
    • Context: Published in 2019, during a time when science communication on YouTube was popular.
    • Constraints: The need to present scientific concepts in an engaging and relatable manner.
  5. TED-Ed’s Animation: “The Benefits of Good Posture”:
    • Exigence: The need to educate people about the importance of maintaining good posture for overall health.
    • Audience: Viewers of educational content interested in health and wellness.
    • Purpose: To inform and persuade by presenting scientific evidence on the benefits of proper posture.
    • Context: Published in 2019, during an era of increased awareness of the health implications of sedentary lifestyles.
    • Constraints: The need to condense complex information into an engaging and easily digestible animated format.

These examples illustrate how the rhetorical situation, including the exigence, audience, purpose, context, and constraints, shapes the content and impact of popular TED Talks and YouTube videos.