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Writing a Results/Findings Chapter in a Nursing PICOT Paper

In a nursing PICOT paper (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Timeframe), the “Results” chapter focuses on presenting the findings of your study derived from the synthesis of evidence (for qualitative studies) or methodology chapter (for quantitative studies). This chapter is solely dedicated to reporting and presenting the results of your research in a clear and organized manner.

Review: Writing Nursing PICOT Paper Chapters

Components a Results/Findings Chapter in a Nursing PICOT Paper

Here’s what you should include in a findings/results chapter in a nursing PICOT paper:

  1. Data Presentation:
    • Begin by presenting the collected data in a concise and organized manner.
    • This may involve presenting numerical data, descriptive statistics, graphs, tables, or qualitative data excerpts.
    • Ensure that the data directly address your research question and objectives.
  2. Statistical Analysis:
    • If applicable, describe the statistical methods used to analyze the data.
    • Present the results of statistical tests or analyses, including any relevant statistical measures, p-values, or confidence intervals.
    • Report the findings in a clear and concise manner, without interpretation or discussion.
  3. Qualitative Findings (if applicable):
    • If your study includes qualitative research, present and summarize the key themes, patterns, or categories that emerged from the data analysis.
    • Use quotes or excerpts from participants to illustrate your findings.
    • Provide a clear and objective account of the qualitative findings without interpretation.
  4. Subgroup Analysis (if applicable):
    • If you conducted subgroup analyses based on specific variables (e.g., age, gender, comorbidities), present and summarize the results for each subgroup.
    • Report any significant differences or trends observed among the subgroups without interpretation.
  5. Data Integration:
    • Summarize the overall findings by integrating the results from different data sources or analyses.
    • Provide a comprehensive overview of the main outcomes and trends identified in the data.
  6. Visual Representations:
    • Use appropriate visual representations such as graphs, charts, or tables to present the data in a visually accessible format.
    • Ensure that the visuals accurately represent the results and aid in understanding the findings.
  7. Clarity and Organization:
    • Present the results in a logical and systematic manner, following the sequence of your research question and objectives.
    • Use clear headings and subheadings to guide readers through the different aspects of the results.
  • Remember, the results chapter should focus solely on presenting the findings without any interpretation, discussion, or implications. It serves to provide a clear and objective account of the data collected and analyzed in your study, setting the stage for the subsequent discussion and interpretation of the results in the dedicated discussion chapter.
  • Remember to structure the  results/findings chapter in a logical and organized manner, allowing readers to follow your analysis and interpretation of the data. Provide clear references to the data presented and support your claims with evidence.

Writing Tips – Nursing PICOT Paper Results Chapter

Here are some writing tips to help you effectively write the Results chapter in a nursing PICOT (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Timeframe) paper:

  1. Be Clear and Concise: Present your findings in a clear and concise manner. Use straightforward language and avoid unnecessary technical jargon. Clearly label and organize your results to enhance readability.
  2. Organize Results logically: Structure your Results chapter to align with your research question and objectives. Present the results in a logical sequence, ensuring that each section flows smoothly from one to the next.
  3. Use Tables and Figures: Utilize tables, graphs, charts, or other visual aids to present your findings. Visual representations can effectively summarize and convey complex data. Ensure that your visuals are appropriately labeled, easy to understand, and directly related to the results being discussed.
  4. Report all Relevant Findings: Report all relevant findings, even if they are not statistically significant or do not align with your initial hypotheses. Transparency in reporting results is crucial for the integrity of your research.
  5. Provide Sufficient Detail: Provide sufficient detail to allow readers to understand and interpret the results. Include information such as sample size, response rates, and any missing data. Clearly describe the statistical tests or qualitative analysis techniques used.
  6. Use Clear Headings and Subheadings: Use clear and descriptive headings and subheadings to guide readers through the different sections of your Results chapter. This helps readers easily locate specific information and follow the flow of your findings.
  7. Separate Results from Interpretation: Ensure that you present the results objectively without interpretation or discussion. Save the interpretation and discussion of the findings for the dedicated Discussion chapter.
  8. Stay Focused on the Research Question: Make sure that all the results you present directly address the research question and objectives of your study. Avoid including unrelated or extraneous information that may confuse or distract readers.
  9. Be Transparent about Limitations: Acknowledge and discuss any limitations or potential biases that may have influenced the results. This demonstrates a critical and reflective approach to your research and enhances the credibility of your findings.
  10. Refer to Appendices if needed: If your Results chapter contains extensive tables, figures, or additional data that may disrupt the flow of the narrative, consider referring to appendices where readers can access the detailed information if desired.

Review: Nursing PICOT Research Papers Writing Guide

  1. List of Suitable Nursing PICOT Questions
  2. Sample Nursing PICOT Papers:
  • By following these writing tips, you can effectively present your research findings in the Results chapter of your nursing PICOT paper. Remember to focus on objective reporting, clarity, and organization to facilitate a clear understanding of your results by readers.
  • The goal of a results chapter in a nursing PICOT (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Timeframe) paper is to present and summarize the findings of the study. It focuses on providing a clear and objective account of the data analysis, statistical results, qualitative findings, or any other relevant outcomes related to the research question and objectives. The results chapter aims to report the collected data accurately, without interpretation or discussion. Its primary objective is to present the findings in a concise and organized manner, allowing readers to understand the outcomes of the study and evaluate their significance.

Tables, Figures, and Visual Representations: Using Descriptive and Informative Labels

When naming tables, figures, graphs, or other visual aids in your Results chapter, use descriptive and informative labels. The labels should accurately represent the content of the visual aid and provide readers with a clear understanding of what it presents.

  1. For tables:
    • Use concise titles that describe the key variables or categories being presented in the table. Include relevant details such as the sample size, time frame, or specific outcomes measured.
    • Example: Table 1. Demographic Characteristics of Study Participants (N = 200)
  2. For figures or graphs:
    • Provide informative titles that summarize the main findings or patterns depicted in the visual aid. Include the variables being plotted and any important units of measurement.
    • Example: Figure 2. Changes in Blood Pressure over Time for Intervention and Control Groups
  3. For qualitative excerpts or quotes:
    • Briefly describe the content or theme being represented in the quote. Consider using a concise and informative label that captures the essence of the excerpt.
    • Example: Quote 1. Patient Experiences of Self-Management Strategies for Chronic Pain
  • Using descriptive and informative labels helps readers quickly grasp the main point or content of the visual aid without having to rely solely on the surrounding text. It enhances the clarity and accessibility of your Results chapter, enabling readers to navigate and understand the presented data more effectively.
  • Remember to also refer to each table, figure, or visual aid appropriately within the text of your Results chapter. Use clear and specific references (e.g., “As shown in Table 1” or “Figure 2 demonstrates”) to direct readers to the relevant visual representation in order to reinforce the connection between the textual discussion and the supporting visual elements.

Nursing Writing Lab